Isometric force entrainment depends on temporal location of visual information and signal predictability

Open Access
Mazich, Molly Moore
Area of Honors:
Bachelor of Science
Document Type:
Thesis Supervisors:
  • Karl Maxim Newell, Thesis Supervisor
  • Jinger S. Gottschall, Honors Advisor
  • isometric force
  • entrainment
  • temporal location
  • predictability
  • signal
  • visual information
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of past and/or future information and it’s predictability on accurately entraining to a signal in the environment. Participants were asked to produce isometric force via abduction of the right index finger to match 1/f-like waveforms with varying predictability (sine wave, brown/pink, and white noise). The visual condition was manipulated so that only current information, only future information, only past information, or both past and future information about the target waveform was available. For predictable waveforms, subjects entrained locally and thus future information about the target waveform lead to improved performance on local variables such as root mean squared error (RMSE), lead/lag, and correlation coefficient. For unpredictable waveforms, subjects entrained globally so that only the presence of information about the target waveform mattered, and not it’s positioning. This was reflected by there being no influence of visual condition on global variables such as Approximate Entropy (ApEn), spectral slope and proportion of power. For target waveforms with some degree of predictability, both local and global entrainment occurred. The emphasis on local or global entrainment was dependent upon the predictability of the isometric force target and its interaction with the information available about the past and/or future properties of the signal.