THE EFFECT OF HURDLE LENGTH AND FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATIONS ON HEIGHT AND RATE OF ROTATIONS IN DIVING

Open Access
Author:
Zeises, Ilana Jessica
Area of Honors:
Interdisciplinary in Bioengineering and Kinesiology
Degree:
Bachelor of Science
Document Type:
Thesis
Thesis Supervisors:
  • Vladimir M Zatsiorsky, Thesis Supervisor
  • Dr Jaebum Park, Thesis Supervisor
  • Peter J Butler, Honors Advisor
  • Stephen Jacob Piazza, Honors Advisor
Keywords:
  • diving
  • bioengineering
  • kinesiology
Abstract:
Diving is a very unique sport. Many different athletes performing the same dive start that dive differently. This study questions whether the approach to starting a dive can affect the ultimate outcome of the dive. There is no agreed upon way to start a dive and so usually it is based upon the preference of the athlete or the coach. A hurdle is considered a forward approach in diving. It consists of a step, lifting the opposite leg, landing with the feet together, and swinging the arms backwards while jumping off. A back press is the backward approach. In order to perform a back press, a diver stands backwards at the end of the board with only the balls of his feet on the board and his heels hanging off the end. The diver may then oscillate the board by lifting and lowering his heels. When the diver is ready to take off he circles his arms backwards and jumps off. Both the hurdle and the back press are important in determining the final outcome of the dive. Momentum is conserved, thus while in motion, the diver will use any momentum gained in the takeoff. It is the positioning of the diver that will dictate how or in what direction that momentum will be used. Ideally, the diver should use the momentum to jump almost completely vertical. This study examines the aspects of both the forward and backward take offs. Using a video camera, it is tested whether or not the length of the step in the hurdle or the number of oscillations in a back press has a significant effect on the dive. The features of the dive being tested are the maximum height reached and the rate of rotation. Data for these variables are collected with the program KWON3D and statistical analysis is done using a ANOVA. Despite a lack of strong statistical significance, qualitative analysis shows that the middle hurdle length and the middle number of oscillations were the best options as the subjects jumped higher and spun faster. It is also shown that the varying hurdle lengths and oscillations do not result in a measurable difference in momentum.