QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF FORMULATION ADDITIVES ON METABOLISM OF CHLOROTHALONIL IN HONEY BEES

Open Access
Author:
Bahn, David Gordon
Area of Honors:
Elective Area of Honors - Entomology
Degree:
Bachelor of Science
Document Type:
Thesis
Thesis Supervisors:
  • Christopher Albert Mullin, Thesis Supervisor
  • Diana Lynn Cox Foster, Honors Advisor
Keywords:
  • Honey Bees
  • Chlorothalonil
  • Chlorothalonil metabolites
  • Glutathione
  • Formulation additives
  • Colony Collapse Disorder
  • Entombed Pollen
  • LCMS
  • PDA
  • Pesticides in beeswax
Abstract:
Two groups of honeybees were exposed to orally administered, low level doses of formulation and technical grade chlorothalonil (approximately 2µg/bee/day) continuously over a three day period. Excreta samples were collected every 24 hours, along with mortality data. Following collection, excreta were extracted, and samples analyzed using LCMS-UV/Vis spectroscopy. In two separate trials, the mortality rate among the group that received the formulation dose was at least four times higher than the technical and control dose groups. A significantly higher mortality rate was observed during the 24-48 hour time period than during the 48-72 hour time period. Photodiode array (PDA) data demonstrates significant differences in the chemical profile of excreta samples collected at 24 and 48+ hours, suggesting a correlation with observed mortality. PDA and LC-MS data also confirm the presence of chlorothalonil in collected wax chips.