Predictors of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: A comparison of performance-based measures and a self-report measure

Open Access
Author:
Johnson, Lindsay T
Area of Honors:
Human Development and Family Studies
Degree:
Bachelor of Science
Document Type:
Thesis
Thesis Supervisors:
  • Lesley Anne Ross, Thesis Supervisor
  • Charles Geier, Honors Advisor
Keywords:
  • older adults
  • Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
  • Everyday Functioning
Abstract:
Objective: Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) include tasks such as driving, cooking and balancing a checkbook. The ability to complete IADL is essential for well-being and independence; however, assessment methods vary greatly. This study examined the relationships and predictors of three performance-based IADL measures compared to a self-report IADL measure. Methods: Secondary data analyses were conducted with healthy older adults from the Advanced Cognitive Training for the Independent and Vital Elderly study (ACTIVE, N=2626). Performance-based measures included the: Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL), Observed Tasks of Daily Living (OTDL) and Everyday Problems Test (EPT). A shortened version of the Minimum Data Set (MDS) was used for the self-report questionnaire. Results: Pearson correlations revealed a moderate correlation between the performance-based measures (r=.47-.60, ps<.001). The self-report MDS showed a weak correlation with TIADL (r= .093, p<.001) and OTDL (r=.051 p<.05), but not with EPT (p>.05). After accounting for demographics, health, vision, and physical functioning, cognition was a consistent predictor for performance-based IADL, but not for the MDS. Vision and the Turn 360 Test showed inconsistent results. Discussion: Cognition is closely related to IADL among community-dwelling older adults. However, in regards to the relationship between IADL, physical functioning and sensory functioning, future research is needed. Furthermore, when administering self-report measures of IADL clinicians should use caution. Findings should be replicated in a sample with diminished cognitive capacity in order to assess utilization in a clinical setting.