UTILIZING PROTEIN-POLYPHENOL INTERACTIONS TO DEVELOP A GLUTEN-FREE BEER

Open Access
Author:
Aster Broder, Jay
Area of Honors:
Food Science
Degree:
Bachelor of Arts
Document Type:
Thesis
Thesis Supervisors:
  • Ryan John Elias, Thesis Supervisor
  • John E Hayes, Honors Advisor
Keywords:
  • food science
  • beer
  • protein
  • phenol
  • polyphenols
  • celiac disease
  • gluten
  • tannic acid
Abstract:
In the United States alone, one percent of the population suffers from celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder resulting from a negative response to gluten in the small-intestine. The only current effective treatment is adherence to a gluten-free diet. However, many popular foods contain low levels of gluten, which only exacerbate the symptoms. Beer is a delicious and widely consumed beverage that contains low levels of gluten. The development of a gluten free beer would provide a safe alternative for patients with celiac disease and capitalize on a growing market for gluten-free foods. These experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of tannic acid to remove gluten from a model beer system and Irish style ale. By using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy suggesting the efficacy of tannic acid to remove gliadin in beer, total quantification of protein in model beer was carried out using EZQ assay. Tannic acid in the model beer was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method to optimize required tannic acid in the American amber ale. The level of gliadin in model beer was reduced 90% to below 20 ppm. The total level of protein in the ale was reduced 40% at the same ratio of added tannic acid to protein. Unlike the known level of gliadin in model beer, the proteins in the ale are diverse and not purely gliadin. The findings could provide insight for breweries interested in reducing the level of gluten in beer to have fewer than 20ppm of gluten required for gluten free labeling.