How Effective are the Interventions of the CDC's National Diabetes Prevention Program in Lowering HBA1C Levels and Weight Loss Percentages in Pre-Diabetics?

Open Access
Author:
Porterfield, Shannon Marie
Area of Honors:
Health Policy and Administration
Degree:
Bachelor of Science
Document Type:
Thesis
Thesis Supervisors:
  • Patrick Michael Plummer, Thesis Supervisor
  • Sungwoog Choi, Honors Advisor
  • Hengameh Hosseini, Faculty Reader
  • Shirley Elizabeth Clark, Faculty Reader
Keywords:
  • diabetes
  • diabetes prevention
  • type II
  • weight loss
  • blood sugar
  • HBA1C
Abstract:
Type II diabetes affects 29 million Americans with 1.4 million newly diagnosed each year. The disease also accounts for $245 billion in health care expenses. However, it is a disease that can be stopped with preventative medicine. Although the presence of prevention programs for type II diabetes is increasing, the overall rates of the disease are not decreasing despite an increased presence of these programs alone. Research shows this is due to an inequality in the effectiveness of varying prevention programs. To determine the effectiveness of a single diabetes prevention program, this thesis seeks to answer how effective the CDC’s National Diabetes Prevention Program is in decreasing HBA1C levels and weight loss percentages in pre-diabetics. To do this, a meta-analysis and calculation of effect size statistics was conducted to determine whether the interventions were effective. The effect sizes were calculated using sample size, means, proportions and standard deviations using the standardized mean difference effect size, as outlined in a study by DelliFraine and Dansky’s called Home-Based Telehealth: A Review and Meta-Analysis, which was published in 2008. Once the unbiased summaries of the studies were created, a random effects model was used to analyze the studies and interventions to determine if the interventions produced the desired results. Using the p-value to calculate probability and determine whether there is evidence to reject the null hypothesis, the effects model showed that p = 0.03 confirming that the results were statistically significant. This proves that the interventions outlined in the CDC’s National Diabetes Prevention Program are effective in lowering HBA1C levels and weight loss percentages in pre-diabetics.