The Eagle and the Bull: United States Relations With Francoist Spain during World War II

Open Access
Beckman, Bruce
Area of Honors:
Bachelor of Arts
Document Type:
Thesis Supervisors:
  • Anne Rose, Thesis Supervisor
  • Cathleen Cahill, Honors Advisor
  • History
  • Spain
  • The United States
  • World War II
  • Diplomacy
  • Carlton Hayes
  • Bruce Beckman
  • Ambassador
This thesis argues that the relationship between the United States and Spain played a significant part in maintaining the neutrality of Spain and had a considerable effect on the outcome of the war. It is largely based on research done at The Columbia University Rare Book Library on the Carlton J.H. Hayes Papers, 1920-1962. These papers were the records of the Ambassador of the United States to Spain, Carlton J.H. Hayes, and contained his personal notes and correspondence in addition to official communications and letters that he wrote as Ambassador to Spain. Utilizing the hundreds of pages contained in this archive was essential in gaining access to a unique set of primary sources that placed the United States-Spanish relationship in a context previously unexplored. Where before, there was little secondary research on the American relationship with Spain during World War II, and even fewer that utilized the writings of Carlton Hayes, this thesis explores a new avenue of research on a little explored subject. Additionally, Ambassador Hayes’ personal notes and correspondence provided a window into the mind of an individual whose experiences during World War II were singular and reflective of his responsibilities during the war. The opportunity to utilize these records allowed this rare perspective to come to light and his words and experiences are reflected throughout this thesis.