DETERMINATION OF THE SOLUBILITY OF CALCIUM PHOSPHOSILICATE NANOPARTICLES FOR TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY

Open Access
Author:
May, Jared M
Area of Honors:
Chemistry
Degree:
Bachelor of Science
Document Type:
Thesis
Thesis Supervisors:
  • James Hansell Adair, Thesis Supervisor
  • Raymond Lee Funk, Honors Advisor
Keywords:
  • Calcium Phosphosilicate
  • Nanoparticles
  • Cancer
  • Drug Delivery
Abstract:
Despite significant advances in treatment options for all types of cancer in recent decades, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the world. Conventional chemotherapy requires the use of large doses of highly toxic compounds, which leads to systemic side effects due to nonspecific cellular uptake, affecting cancer cells and healthy cells alike. Because of this, nanomedicine and targeted strategies have emerged as promising candidates for the new age of cancer treatment. Among current research efforts, calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs) are some of the most promising. In the pH 7.4 plasma, CPSNPs are insoluble. Upon reaching the low pH environment of the late endo-lysosome of a cancer cell, the amorphous nanoparticles readily dissolve and release the encapsulated chemotherapeutic agent. CPSNPs can be surface bioconjugated with a wide variety of aptamers to target specific cells and cancers and have shown the ability to encapsulate an extensive array of chemotherapeutics and imaging agents. These nanoparticles have been extensively evaluated in murine models and have shown success in knocking down metastatic tumors, but little is known of their quantitative solubility. In this study, the chemical solubility of calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles is investigated to determine a provisional solubility product for the novel material. Calcium ion selective electrodes and inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy are used in conjunction with the electrolyte thermodynamic simulation program from OLI Systems to develop a quantitative solubility of CPSNPs. The solubility of the new material is then examined in simulated physiological conditions. Quantitative knowledge of the solubility of CPSNPs will allow further tailoring of the synthesis to design a nanoparticle that dissolves in highly specific physiological environments to treat a variety of cancers on-demand.